Specialist obstetrics and gynecology Opr. Dr. Esra Nur Özgür gave information about 15 gynecological diseases and cervical cancer that are common in women. Expressing that every woman can encounter gynecological disorders at some point in her life, Opr. Dr. Esra Nur Özgür said: “Every woman can encounter gynecological diseases at some point in her life. These diseases can negatively affect a woman’s sexual life and reproductive capacity, creating situations that threaten her life. However, early diagnosis of gynecological diseases is of great importance in terms of quality and duration of life. Despite this, some serious disease symptoms can be ignored by women. various gynecological cancers. Although some gynecological diseases are more common in women than other reproductive diseases, some women may see them more often.” When gynecological diseases are mentioned, diseases of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and external genitalia, are understood. Since there are gynecological diseases or gynecological diseases that we often encounter, some of them fall into the group of dangerous gynecological diseases,” he said.
Most common gynecological diseases
Listing the most common diseases encountered by a woman in her life, Opr. Dr Esra Nur Özgür said: “The most common gynecological conditions are painful periods, vaginal discharge, abortion, polycystic ovarian disease, uterine fibroids, chocolate cyst, urinary incontinence, groin and waist pain, sexual dysfunction, infertility, vaginal fungus, ovarian cyst, pelvic infection and uterine inflammation, thickening of the uterine wall and cervical cancer.
Dr. Esra Nur Özgür said: “According to data from the Ministry of Health, it ranks 10th in our country. Cervical cancer is the only cancer whose cause has been fully elucidated and can be prevented. As the cell layer that forms the surface of the cervix changes into abnormal cells, cells that can be called ‘precursors of cancer’ are created. If precursors of cancer are not detected and treated early, they can become cervical cancer. health organizations recommend that all boys and girls between the ages of 11 and 12 receive two or three doses of the HPV vaccine to be protected against HPV-related cancers.If they have not been previously vaccinated, the HPV vaccine can be administered up to age 21 for men and at any age for women.While surgical treatment is paramount in the early stages, radiotherapy is the primary treatment option in the advanced stages.
Screening tests should not be neglected
Dr. Esra Nur Özgür said: “This test, which is used for cervical cancer screening, is considered the ‘most valuable screening test’ that women can have due to its ease of use, accuracy of results and the ability to achieve treatment before the disease progresses thanks to these results. Since the formation of cervical cancer is 99.7 percent related to HPV, which is the human wart virus, this screening is of great importance.” started, not wait three years, that she would have to have this test from the age of 21 and that the screenings would have to be repeated every year,” he said.
Testing and Risks
By providing information about how the test is performed and what might happen if a risk is detected, Dr. Özgür said: “During the gynecological examination, a smear is taken from the cervix using a brush or stick, so quickly and easily that the patient does not notice it, and is rubbed on the glass and sent to the pathology laboratory in special carriers in liquid-based tests. Here the cells are examined under a microscope using special techniques. The changes in the cells of the cervix are called precursor lesions and they are classified according to the degree of change. As a leading lesion in the high-risk group has been detected as a result of the smear, the method of colposcopy is applied, in which the cervix is enlarged and examined.Here, a biopsy can be taken from the abnormal areas and compared with the smear result.Treatment methods by burning and freezing are less preferred today.If the results of the smear show cancer, surgical treatment is planned.
Dr. Özgür continued his speech as follows:
Routine annual gynecological examinations using the ultrasound method are important for identifying massive lesions in the ovarian area and supporting the findings with other investigations if necessary. Pap smears may also be performed during these examinations. It is recommended that every sexually active woman be examined by a gynecologist and obstetrician once a year under normal circumstances. and. The inner wall (endometrium) ) thickens with hormonal effect every month and is excreted with menstruation. A continuous thickening here is a warning during the examination. Cystic formations in the ovaries are also evaluated during this examination. In necessary cases, a sample is taken from the uterus by biopsy and sent to the pathological laboratory, and the direction of treatment is determined based on the result. Because of the increase in tumor markers in the blood in ovarian cancer, screening for these in high-risk groups can be a guideline for the diagnosis. However, high levels of these markers do not always indicate ovarian cancer. In women with high risk factors, tumor markers are checked at the annual gynecological examination. Blood is taken from the patient who comes for the examination. CA125, the most frequently rising tumor marker in ovarian cancer, may be as high as in women with chocolate cysts, in the presence of uterine fibroids, in women who smoke and in women who have no problems at a rate of 2 percent, although it is not as high as in cancers near menstruation. Therefore, the results of this test are nothing but stimulating. In women with a family history of ovarian cancer, it is important to evaluate the causes if markers are high. Manual inspection is a scanning method that everyone has instant access to. Every woman should touch her own breast at the end of her period, and if there is a mass that she thought was not there before, she should immediately consult a gynecologist or general surgery specialist. This mass is also likely benign. However, it needs to be investigated. As with many cancers, early detection saves lives. A correct manual examination must be done standing and lying in front of the mirror. It is important to see if there is a symmetry disorder between the two breasts and to see the changes on the skin. It is necessary to conduct the examination from the nipple, covering the entire breast tissue and armpit with rounded lines, pressing with the fingertips from the skin to the bones of the ribcage. In the meantime, taking into account the painful or painless mass and even the smallest lesion previously unimagined and consulting a physician saves lives.”
Emphasizing that a Pap smear is also important in breast screening, Özgür said: “Given that breast cancer is seen in one in eight women, this test is of great importance. Those with a history of breast cancer in their first-degree female relatives, those with early menstrual cycles and those with late menopause have higher risk factors. While these people may be more likely to be regularly monitored, today every woman should have her first mammogram at age 35 and keep her first mammogram at age 40. as long as she is 40 years old. The fullness of the breast tissue due to hormones before the age of 35 reduces the imaging power of mammography. Both breasts are compressed between the plates in the mammography machine and images are taken and abnormalities can be detected that are too small to be detected by hand examination. If a mass is detected, the type of mass is determined in several ways. If the mass is malignant, treatment is planned according to the stage,” he concluded.