All about Georgia
Georgia is located on the southern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains, which form a natural border with the northern Caucasian republics of the Russian Federation. The country covers approximately 27,000 square miles (69,900 square kilometers) and stretches along the ridge of the Greater Caucasus, bordered by the Black Sea to the west, the Armenian and Turkish highlands to the south, and Azerbaijan to the east. The topography is diverse. The northern region is characterized by high mountains and while the central and southern parts are mountainous, it is much lower and covered with alpine fields and forests. In the east, all the rivers join Mtkvari (Kura) to form the Caspian basin, while in the west the rivers Rioni and Enguri the largest flow into the Black Sea.
The population was estimated at between five and five and a half million in 2000, but is uncertain due to the massive and uncountable migration. Just over half of the population lives in urban areas, of which 1.6 million live in Tbilisi. Ethnic Georgians make up the vast majority of the population in most regions, but there are Armenian settlements in the south and Azerbaijani settlements in the southeast, respectively.
The majority language is Georgian, which belongs to the Kartvelian (South Caucasian) language group. However, some subgroups speak other languages in the same language group. The literary language comes from the Kartlian dialect spoken in the historically dominant eastern kingdom of Kartli. Georgian is the only Kartvelian language written and taught and the literary language used by all Georgians.
The competing influence of Asian and Western cultures is most evident in Byzantine and Persian influences. Another overlap is between Christian and Pagan, which has had a much weaker influence than neighboring Muslim patrons. Today, most cultural symbolism reflects a mythological interpretation of tradition, influenced by self-perception as belonging to European, Christian contemporary society.
The settlements are dominated by a church built on a nearby hill, but not in the center. However, during the Soviet period, many churches were demolished or converted into warehouses. Newly built churches are often weak copies of old examples, primitive expressions of a declining tradition. Little remains of the medieval structure of small urban settlements surrounded by a fortress wall.
Georgia is a presidential republic. While ministers are formally headed by the Secretary of State, the president is also the head of the executive branch. The unicameral parliament (consisting of 225 members) is elected through a mixed majority system. The President’s Georgia Civil Union has won the last parliamentary election. The other two parties in parliament are the Industrialists’ Union and the Georgia’s Resurrection Union.
The state welfare system is inefficient and resource-poor. Pensions are only a fifth of subsistence income, are poorly targeted and cover too many beneficiaries. Most aid goes to displaced persons from Abkhazia. A number of international and intergovernmental organizations are working to improve the social security system.
Meaning of the flag of Georgia
While the white background of the Georgian flag symbolizes purity, the red cross placed to divide it into four in the center and the other crosses on the edges symbolize devotion to religion, as in the Georgian kingdom of the Middle Ages.
Capital of Georgia
The capital of Georgia is Tbilisi.
Currency of Georgia
The Georgian currency is the Georgian Lari.
Time difference between Georgia and Turkey
Turkey is an hour behind Georgia. While it is 9:15 PM in Georgia, it is 8:15 PM in Turkey.