Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Chief Physician and President of the Breast Surgery Association Prof. Dr. Nuh Zafer Cantürk made statements about the symptoms and treatment methods of breast cancer, which progresses insidiously and does not show itself in a short time. Claiming that breast cancer is a very common cancer, especially among women in the world and in Turkey, Prof. Dr. Nuh Zafer Cantürk stated that the risk of contracting this disease is increasing day by day. Noting that the diagnostic opportunities in the evolving medical field are pleasing, Cantürk said: “With the development of treatment options, the number of cancer deaths is not increasing at the same rate. Breast cancer is an anarchic phenomenon where a cell in the breast acquires abnormal characteristics and these first become anarchic by multiplying from one cell to two cells, from two to four cells, from four to eight cells. However, sometimes our patients come up to us and say, ‘I had nothing, it just happened all of a sudden.’ During this period, we are trying to raise awareness so that breast cancer can be diagnosed by participating in screening programs, especially in certain age groups.
“A palpable mass does not always have to be malicious”
As for the symptoms of breast cancer, Cantürk continued as follows:
“Sometimes breast cancer can present with bloody discharge from the nipple, a palpable mass in the breast, collapse in the nipple and different parts of the breast, and different lesions. patients whose cancer we have discovered through imaging and screening programs. If we can catch it in this way, there can be a full recovery from breast cancer. The more advanced the stage, the higher the cost of treatment, the less at the rate of recovery and cure from the disease, and also causes social and family problems. Ultrasound, breast self-examination, We recommend that after the age of 40, you apply to health institutions and have mammography and ultrasound of the breasts. After the age of 50, we recommend that you join the Ministry of Health screening programs if they have the opportunity. possible to get breast cancer without these symptoms. A palpable mass is always bad It may not be benign, so we should not be alarmed if we encounter a mass. Our main effort is to calculate that the mass is benign.”
‘Breast cancer in men may be a little more aggressive’
Claiming that breast cancer can progress more aggressively in men, Prof. Dr. Nuh Zafer Cantürk said: “99 out of 100 breast cancers are seen in women and 1 in men. There is a rate of 1 percent. We can say that men can more easily develop breast cancer.” Our friends also need to be more vigilant against breast cancer Some drugs used in childhood and aging can cause conditions called gynecomastia in the breast These are benign events but must be confirmed by a Therefore, patients with such complaints should present to general surgical clinics. “They should confirm whether it is benign or not,” he said.
“Breast removal and mass removal may be possible in both men and women”
Noting that breast cancer seen in men usually appears as a mass, it develops quickly because it is close to the skin. Dr Cantürk said: “It is possible to remove the breast and remove the mass in both men and women. There are also methods such as removing the axillary lymph nodes or not removing the remaining axillary lymph nodes if the first axillary lymph node is found and In the second half of the 20th century, a type of surgery called a modified radical mastectomy was performed, which involves removing the breast tissue on the muscles and lymph nodes in the armpits instead of the muscles. the early 20th century,” he said.
“If the patient does not want to have the breast removed, we will certainly protect the breast”
In stating that the complete removal of the breast is a situation that frightens patients, but due to the development of medical methods, this method was used as a ‘last resort’, Cantürk said: “In the last quarter of the 20th century century, the methods we have developed breast-conserving surgery, in which only the removal of the mass emerged If the breast is in the right place, If it has no more than one focus, if the patient does not prefer to remove the breast, then we certainly protect the breast. We only remove the mass with its edges intact. We used to remove the axillary lymph nodes in the beginning, this time edema developed in the arm and caused life difficulties. showed that the lymph nodes were not involved. That’s why we find now the first lymph node in the armpit with a blue dye that we give to the nipple or with a radioactive substance, we evaluate that lymph node during or after the operation. If there is no tumor, do we? remove the remaining axillary lymph nodes? we are tired. If the first lymph node test is positive, we will remove the remaining axillary lymph nodes, as there is a good chance that the subsequent lymph nodes will be positive. From the beginning of the 21st century, we can say that instead of removing the breast, it has come forward to bring out the masses.”
“10 percent of breast cancer is hereditary”
Underlining that not all masses are cancerous, Cantürk said: “There are misconceptions that breast pain is cancer and that cysts can become cancer. First, what we call cysts are sacs filled with water. If these cysts are simple water-filled cysts, call them “fibrocystic changes.” We don’t say “fibrocystic disease” and these aren’t things that pave the way for cancer. Therefore, there is no need to panic and go from doctor to doctor and go to hospitals very often. If people with fibrocysts need to see a doctor once a year, ultrasound may be recommended. Any palpable cyst is not cancer, there is no need to panic. Not necessary. Breast cancer is believed to be hereditary. If a woman has breast cancer, there is a misconception that ‘it will be seen in a sibling, mother or child’ 10 percent of breast cancer is genetic 80 percent is related to environmental and other factors The major risk factor is being a woman The more the breast is exposed to the female hormone the greater the risk of developing breast cancer. Things like menstruation at a young age, late menopause and less breastfeeding cause the breast to be more exposed to this hormone. Therefore, situations such as giving birth at a young age in this in-between period and breast-feeding their children after delivery can be protective. “Even though they all do this, they can get cancer because environmental factors also play a role,” he said.