The most common causes and treatments for shoulder pain are;
Several peripheral muscle problems, especially fibromyalgia syndrome and myofascial pain syndrome, can cause shoulder pain.
Muscle and Nerve Compression:
Hernias of the neck (C4-7), brachial plexus neuropathies, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy can cause shoulder pain. Impingement syndrome can develop due to compression and inflammation of the supraspinatus muscle tendon, bicipital tendon, and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and chorocoacromial arch. Acromioclavicular joint pathologies, osteophytes, bursitis, proximal humerus fracture, kyphosis, scoliosis, and anterior 1/3 structural changes of the acromion may also contribute to compression.
Labrum (Capsule) Tears:
Due to the tears that can usually be seen in the labrum, the labrum cannot do its job and shoulder instability occurs. This situation occurs during shoulder dislocations due to acute trauma, and more lesions may occur on the labrum and joint surfaces due to recurrence of dislocations in the future. Shoulder instability unrelated to trauma may also develop. This can occur due to dislocations created by the looseness of the tendons, ligaments, and muscles around the shoulder. This form of shoulder instability may not be associated with a labral tear.
Muscle tears, especially the supraspinatus muscle, which is part of the rotator cuff muscle group, are among the causes of shoulder pain and limitation. Biceps muscle tendonitis and calcified tendonitis can also cause pain.
Frozen shoulder syndrome (adhesive capsulitis) is a condition that initially begins with shoulder pain and progresses to limitation of shoulder mobility due to joint inflammation of the shoulder joint capsule and joint synovium. Although it usually develops in one shoulder, it can affect both shoulders. Keeping the shoulder fixed for a long time due to trauma such as bumps and falls can trigger this disease. Shoulder calcification, prolonged rest after trauma, diabetes, heart disease, and lung disease can predispose to the development of frozen shoulder.
Pathologies of shoulder joints:
Glenohumeral osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint (calcification), osteochondral lesions, acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, pseudogout, gout diseases and scapulothoracic joint pathologies can be counted among the diseases or conditions that can cause shoulder pain.