European Union | Members, goals and policies

The European Union must promote cooperation between Member States, develop the common economic space and keep peace in Europe. Here you will find detailed information about the EU.

What is the European Union?

The European Union is known as a political and economic union of 27 member states. The European Union, whose foundations were laid by the Treaty of Rome signed for the first time by six countries in 1957, has faced many crises and difficulties in its history, but today it is one of the most powerful political and economic unions in the world.

The main objective of the European Union is to bring together the countries of the European continent, to promote peace and prosperity, to protect human rights and freedoms and to achieve sustainable development. For these purposes, a range of economic and social policies, such as free trade and free movement, have been developed among the members of the European Union.

There is a full partnership between the members of the European Union and is based on the principles of cooperation and solidarity between the members. While each country has its own unique culture, history and socio-economic situation, there are many common values ​​and goals associated with being a member of the European Union.

History of the European Union

European Union

The European Union was formed through a process that dates back to the 1950s. After World War II, European countries felt the need to work together to ensure peace and prosperity. As a result of this need, six countries – Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands – formed the European Coal and Steel Community in the early 1950s.

The European Coal and Steel Community aimed to promote economic cooperation in the post-war period by liberalizing coal and steel production and trade between its members. This community, which functions successfully, is a pioneer in the application of the principles of cooperation and solidarity between its member states.

Goals and objectives of the European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) has many goals and objectives, such as promoting cooperation and solidarity among its member states, maintaining peace and prosperity, ensuring economic growth and social progress.

The EU implements many economic policies and programs to enhance the economic development and well-being of its member states. It includes the creation of a free trade area, the common agricultural policy, the use of the common currency, the euro, and the liberalization of labor and capital movements between Member States.

The EU also implements many policies to ensure social justice and equality between its member states. These include setting and implementing standards in areas such as education, health, working conditions, workers’ rights, women’s rights, environmental protection and respect for human rights.

Another important goal of the EU is to strengthen political and security cooperation between the member states. To this end, the EU cooperates with the Member States in areas such as the common defense policy, the common refugee policy, the common foreign policy and the fight against terrorism.

European Union membership process

European Union

The European Union (EU) currently consists of 27 member states. Countries that want to join the EU can apply for membership by going through a certain process.

The membership process usually consists of the following steps:


The country is applying for EU membership. This application is made by decision of the government of the country.

Copenhagen criteria

The EU requires countries applying for membership to meet a series of economic, political and legal criteria known as the Copenhagen criteria. These criteria include democracy, human rights, free market economy, adoption and implementation of EU legislation.

Progress reports

The EU prepares and publishes the candidate countries’ progress reports. These reports indicate to what extent countries meet the Copenhagen criteria and what they should do during the accession process.


The EU enters the negotiation process with the candidate countries. In this process, the country must adopt and implement EU legislation.

Entry Agreement

If the negotiations are successful, an accession agreement will be signed between the country and the EU. This agreement contains all the conditions under which the country can become a member of the EU.


The country will become a member of the EU upon ratification of the accession treaty and adoption of EU legislation. The membership process can vary from country to country and is often a long process. Some countries may experience difficulties in certain aspects of the implementation process, even years after completing negotiations and joining the EU.

Member States of the European Union

European Union

Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom in 1973; Greece in 1981; Portugal, Spain in 1986; West and East Germany in 1990, Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995; In 2004, the Greek part of Southern Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 joined the EU. The number of members thus became 27.

Turkey applied to the European Union in 1959. Relations, which officially began on September 30, 1959, were constantly interrupted. And Turkey is not a member of the European Union.

  • Germany
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Croatia
  • Holland
  • Ireland
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Italy
  • Republic of Cyprus
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Hungary
  • Malta
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Greece

European Union policy

European Union

The European Union (EU) was established to promote political, economic and social cooperation between its member states. The EU has developed a number of policies and programs to achieve these goals.

Economic policy

The EU implements a range of policies to coordinate the economies of its member states and create a common economic space. These policies include the single currency euro, free trade agreements, common agricultural policy, competition policy and energy policy.

Social policy

The EU also attaches importance to issues such as the protection of social rights and the promotion of workers’ rights. The EU promotes social cohesion between Member States by setting common standards in areas such as working time, workers’ health and safety, social security and disability rights.

Environmental policy

The EU also attaches importance to issues such as environmental protection and sustainable development. The EU promotes cooperation between Member States on environmental protection by setting common standards in areas such as air quality, water management, waste management, biodiversity and climate change.

Foreign policy

The EU is also globally influential with its foreign policy. The EU countries work together by creating a common foreign and security policy. The EU also works with developing countries to implement development and humanitarian projects and support peacekeeping.

Education and culture policy

The EU is also active in education and culture. The EU cooperates on exchange programs for students and teachers, vocational training projects and adult education between its Member States. The EU also runs several programs to protect and promote cultural diversity.

European Coal and Steel Community

European Union

He advocated consolidating the production of two important war materials such as coal and steel in one hand, so that no new war would break out in Western Europe. Jean Monnet, the founder of the ideas behind the founding of the European Union, said that the iron and steel countries should be taken into the hands of the states to make war impossible.

Influenced by Monnet, Schumman proposed and accepted that the steel supplies between France and Germany should be pooled and that these materials, which are the basic inputs of the war industry, should be left to the responsibility of a supranational agency. Thus, obstacles were raised to the formation of war between countries in Europe.

The Treaty of Rome, which came into force in 1958, first provided for the customs union between member states, that is, freely buying and selling goods between member states without paying customs duties. However, the ultimate goal of the Treaty of Rome was not only the economy, but also the creation of common policies in many areas, such as common agriculture, transportation and competition. The convergence of economic policies is the establishment of economic and monetary union, the establishment of common policies and security policies. It was founded by Monnet and Schumman.

Which are the EU countries?

The 27 members of the EU are: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Croatia, Netherlands, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Italy, Republic of Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta , Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Greece.

How to join the EU?

A: The membership process is quite long and complicated. To become a member of the EU, a country must be able to demonstrate that it complies with EU rules, meets economic and political criteria and adopts EU standards.

What is the official language of the EU?

The EU has 24 official languages. These languages ​​include languages ​​spoken in European countries such as German, French, English, Spanish, Italian and Greek.

What is the purpose of the EU?

The aim of the EU is to promote cooperation between member states, to develop the common economic space and to maintain peace in Europe. The EU also implements several policies to ensure better living conditions for the citizens of its member states.

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