The French Revolution was a period of social, political and cultural change that began in 1789 and lasted 10 years. This revolution led to the destruction of feudalism in France, the rule of justice and equality, and the people to have a voice. Here is detailed information about the French Revolution.
What is the French Revolution?
The French Revolution is a major event that left its mark on European and world history. The revolution led to an effort to establish a system of government around the world that worked to protect equality, justice, and the people of the powerless. This revolution also profoundly affected the structure and culture of France and sparked similar revolutionary movements in other countries in Europe.
French Revolution, History of the Revolution
The economic and social structure before the French Revolution is commonly referred to as the “old regime”. In pre-revolutionary France, there were legally three classes: the clergy and nobility, described as the privileged classes, and the “third class”, which includes all segments other than the privileged classes.
Nobles were extensions of medieval feudal lords. They were largely landowners and lived off the income of their land. They were divided in two as court nobles and provincial nobility. All nobility had the privileges of “handling a sword”, “being exempt from various taxes”, “collecting taxes from the peasants because of their feudal rights”.
Clerics, on the other hand, were divided into “noble priests” and “inferior priests”. In France, 10 percent of arable land belonged to the church. In addition, the church was given the right to collect taxes on extensive lands. This important wealth of the Church was largely under the control of “noble priests”.
In France, which had a population of about 25 million on the eve of the revolution, 97 percent of the population outside the privileged classes belonged to the third class. Unlike the others, it had a complex structure. Farmers were still the majority of the third group. However, an economically strong bourgeois class (merchants, bankers, factory owners, self-employed, etc.) emerged in the cities, especially in Paris.
Along with the traditional tradesmen and artisans, with the influence of the industrial revolution, the manual working class in the cities began to emerge as an important part of the third group. Within the Third Estate, the bourgeoisie was the economically powerful class. Superior both economically and in knowledge, this class opposed the legal and political privileges of the clergy and nobility. In addition to their economic power, they also wanted to have a say in political life.
Causes of the French Revolution
Undoubtedly, a great historical event like the French Revolution had very complex and intertwined causes. Historians still hold various debates about political and social causes.
1. The lighting process
First of all, the influence of Enlightenment thinking was quite strong in the French Revolution. Enlightenment thinkers played an important role in creating the intellectual ground of the French Revolution. The inventions in the technical field with the Industrial Revolution also provided new ideas.
2. Concepts of equality, liberty and fraternity
Concepts such as “equality”, “liberty” and “fraternity”, which would become the main slogans of the revolutionary process, reached a wide audience through the pen of these writers. It became increasingly difficult for the absolutist rulers of Europe, especially France, to govern the societies under their rule as they saw fit.
3. Competition France England
One of the main causes of the French Revolution was the rivalry between England and France. In the 18th century, England and France emerged as major economic powers in Europe under the influence of the Industrial Revolution. Between 1688 and 1783, four long wars took place between England and France. France, which devoted a significant part of its financial resources to competition with England, soon faced a serious crisis in the country’s finances. Another clear cause of the French Revolution was the independence of the British colonies in North America.
French revolution, its consequences
The French Revolution, a major event that changed world history and societies, has several consequences. Here are the details;
- It led to the overthrow of monarchical regimes and emphasized the importance of social justice and equality.
- It led to innovations in the fields of art, literature and culture.
- He overthrew monarchical regimes and feudal classes and made France a republic.
- It also led to the spread of democratic ideals and principles in European countries.
- It also changed France’s role and power in the world.
- He stressed the importance of social justice and equality.
- The revolution revealed that all people have equal rights and that distinctions between social classes must be removed.
- It also inspired other revolutionary movements around the world.
- The revolution made artists and writers see the world and people differently.
- The Revolution also contributed to the development of French culture.
The beginnings of the French Revolution
King XVI, who wanted to raise new taxes to overcome the financial crisis. After the nobles opposed the new taxes, which took away some of their privileges, he announced that general assemblies, not convened since 1614, would be convened to gain support from other parts of society. After the elections, General Assemblies were opened on May 4, 1789. The first disagreement arose with the opening.
The political structure in France was now divided in two: the king, the nobility and the church on the one hand, and the bourgeoisie and the general public on the other. The people, who took to the streets to prevent the king from dispersing the “constituent assembly”, captured the Bastille prison, the symbol of the monarchy, on July 14 during their clashes with the soldiers. A new city council was established and the administration of Paris was taken over.
In late July, the rebellious peasants began plundering the nobles’ castles and burning the papers documenting the nobles’ tax and corvée rights over the peasants. This period, known as the “Great Fear”, left landowners in horror. The most important act of the “Constituent Assembly” was the declaration of the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” on August 26, 1789.
Beginning with the article “Men are born and remain free and equal in law,” the statement proclaimed the views of Enlightenment thinkers, particularly natural rights, equality, and civil rights. The Declaration also proclaimed the right to life, liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression as natural and timeless human rights.
However, the practices of the “Declaration of Human and Citizens’ Rights” were not equally reflected for all citizens. The decision of the “Constituent Assembly” to confiscate at a price the lands of the Church, which owns a significant portion of the land in France, did not benefit the poor peasants, who made up the majority of the population, because they didn’t have the money to pay the price.
In another decree, trade unions and all kinds of strikes were banned. The French Revolution began to take shape according to the interests of the bourgeoisie (middle class) among the social classes that carried out the revolution.
Effects of the French Revolution on the World
The French Revolution was a period of social, political and cultural change that began in 1789 and lasted 10 years. This revolution led to the destruction of feudalism, the rule of justice and equality, and the people to have a voice in France. The French Revolution had significant consequences for European countries and the world.
European countries admired the democratic ideals and principles of the French Revolution and tried to spread this revolution. However, the chaos and unrest caused by the French Revolution increased the concerns of European monarchies. These concerns caused revolutions and social conflicts between European countries. In 1848, the revolutionary movements in many European countries showed the consequences of the French Revolution.
The French Revolution also had an impact on the countries of the world. The revolution upset other monarchical regimes and colonial powers around the world. This revolution inspired revolutionary movements aimed at changing the political and social structures of the countries of the world. Thus, Latin American countries started their own struggles for independence, inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution.
Effects of the French Revolution on the Ottoman Empire
The French Revolution affected the Ottoman Empire as well as European and world countries. The revolution changed the social, political and economic structure of Ottoman societies and thus accelerated the process of modernization of the Ottoman Empire.
The French Revolution sparked liberalization and democratization movements in the Ottoman Empire. The impact of the revolution increased aspirations for social and political regulation in Ottoman societies, straining reforms in the Ottoman Empire.
It also influenced the economic structure of the Ottoman Empire. The revolution caused the spread of innovative economic ideas and practices in the Ottoman Empire. This was an important step for the industrialization and economic modernization of the Ottoman Empire.
He stressed the importance of social justice and equality. The revolution revealed that inequalities and injustices in Ottoman societies must be eliminated. This became a justification for social reform in the Ottoman Empire.
When did the French Revolution take place?
The French Revolution started in 1789 and lasted until 1799.
Why did the French Revolution take place?
The French Revolution occurred due to a combination of causes, such as France’s social, economic and political problems, high taxes, poverty, injustice, class segregation and weak rule by the monarch.
Who created the French Revolution?
The French Revolution was made by the French people. It was led by the middle class and the bourgeoisie in particular.
What were the consequences of the French Revolution?
The French Revolution had consequences such as the abolition of the ruler and aristocrats in France, the end of the French monarchy, the rule of the people, the declaration of equality, liberty and justice. At the same time, the French Revolution spread to the countries of Europe and the world, sparking movements for democracy, liberalization and social justice.
What are the consequences of the French Revolution?
The French Revolution sparked democracy, liberalization and social justice movements in European and world countries. At the same time, the French Revolution was an important step towards the abolition of class, gender and ethnic differences in European and world history.