History and sources of the Seljuk organization
The state of Seljuk was founded by the Oghuz Turks who migrated to Anatolia from Central Asia in the late 11th century. From the establishment of the state, the Seljuk organization was organized to rule a large population of many ethnic, cultural and social groups.
The history and foundations of the Seljuk organization
The basis of the Seljuk organization was based on the traditional social structures of the Oghuz Turks. These structures include a hierarchy of clan leaders. Tugrul Bey, the founder of the Seljuk state, and his cousin Alparslan adopted this traditional clan leadership structure and incorporated it into their system of government.
The Seljuk organization consisted of two main parts, the divan and the bureaucracy. The Divan was composed of persons appointed by the monarch, who acted as the special advisory council. The bureaucracy consisted of officials responsible for the administration of the Seljuk state.
The members of the council were advisers and aides to the ruler. Regular council meetings were held to take decisions on political and military matters. The divan was also used to meet the monarch’s personal needs.
The bureaucracy was responsible for the administrative affairs of the Seljuk state. This bureaucratic organization was led by the amirs, lords and governors appointed by the monarch. These rulers were responsible for collecting taxes, dispensing justice and leading the defense.
Seljuk bureaucratic organization
The bureaucratic organization of the Seljuk state consisted of amirs, beys and governors responsible for the administration of the ruler. This organization was created to carry out the administrative affairs of the Seljuk state and carry out the orders of the ruler.
Emirs were the highest officials of the Seljuk state. These were the ruler’s trusted advisers and administrators. Emirs ruled in important regions such as the largest provinces and cities of the Seljuk state.
The gentlemen were middle-ranking bureaucrats of the Seljuk state. These individuals worked under orders and took on administrative duties in smaller areas, such as the small towns of the provinces.
The governors were the bureaucrats of the lowest level of the Seljuk state. These people worked on commission and gentlemen. Governors served in small settlements such as towns and villages.
In the bureaucratic organization of the Seljuk state, the appointment of administrators was under the authority of the ruler. The monarchs controlled the highest levels of bureaucracy and appointed grand viziers and councillors. The appointments of amirs, lords and governors were usually the responsibility of the emirs and lords.
Seljuk Military Organization
The military organization of the Seljuk state was formed by the Turkmen Oghuzs. Turkmen Oghuzs are a Turkic tribe that lived in Central Asia before the establishment of the Seljuk state. At the establishment of the Seljuk state, the Turkmen Oghuzs formed the basis of the Seljuk army.
The Seljuk army was formed by the convergence of many tribes consisting of the Turkmen Oghuz. These tribes fought to expand and protect the borders of the Seljuk state. The Seljuk army consisted of mounted cavalry and they fought with the technique of shooting arrows from horseback.
The Seljuk army was not only Turkmen Oghuzs. In addition to the Turkmen Oghuzs, there were also soldiers of different ethnic groups in the army. Thus, different groups such as Georgians, Armenians, Kurds and Arabs took part in the Seljuk army.
The leadership of the Seljuk army was made by emirs and beys. Emirs were the overall commanders of the army and prepared their war plans. Gentlemen worked on assignment and led various units of the army. The supreme military leader of the army was appointed by a council of viziers elected by the monarch.
Seljuk Historical Resources
The East began a resurgence with the Seljuks. Studies on the history of the Seljuks are insufficient. They have passed Ceyhun since 1035. They spread to Iran, Syria and Anatolia. The copies of the works written in the Seljuk period could not reach the present time for various reasons. The main sources are the works of İbn-i Bibi, Müsameretül Ahbar and Müsameretül Ahyar, the anonymous Selçukname and Kadı Ahmed.
Compared to Ottoman historians, Seljuk historians do not have many sources. There is not much interest. The reader’s interest is Islamic history, not Seljuk history. There is not much information about the history of the Seljuks until the Union and Progress period. In this period, research began with the rise of Turkism. Kutadgu Bilig, Divan-ı Lügatı Türk emerged in this period.
Edicts in the form of inscriptions have been written on stones. They are resources written on a wide variety of topics, mostly on stone. 1st hand sources. Some of the inscriptions: Published by Sheila S. Blair. These are the sources of Iran and Transoxiana from the 11th and 12th centuries.
In contrast, a corpus of 15 volumes examined the inscriptions belonging to Azerbaijani geography by Guliot until the 14th and 15th centuries. In the inscriptions there is information about the culture of that period, economic and social life. We can learn the titles of rulers from these inscriptions.
The coins contain very important information about that period. Tugrul Bey printed the first coin during the Seljuk period. The first Seljuk coins had bows and arrows. In terms of the history of the organization, we can derive the understanding of the monarchy, the names of the mints and the economic situation from the quality of the money.
Yılmaz İzmirlier and Coşkun Alptekin published Seljuk coins in their works.
They are documents that describe how institutions are built for charitable work. They were held by people called foundations. The foundation documents have been collected, original copies have been achieved, and the figures prepared on the stone have been preserved to this day in 3 ways. Osman Turan, Refet Yinanç published them.
Official or private documents. It has been reached today through Sheikh Safiyüddin Erdebil. There are 120 edicts, but these edicts are not from the Seljuks. It provides information about social and economic life and foundations.
It includes individuals’ correspondence with each other, individuals’ correspondence with the state, the state’s correspondence with the individual with the institution and other states. There are 2 types.
1: Ikhwan: People’s correspondence with each other. Congratulations, condolences, scientific topics.
2: Sultanate: It is the correspondence of the sultans with each other and with state officials. They are the most important documents about processes such as appointment and dismissal, the history of the institution and the functioning of the state.
The development of the science of hadith and tafsir has created a number of needs. The development of historiography in the Islamic world parallels the sciences of Islam. Since the third year of Hijri, history books have appeared in real terms. A history book has been published about the Islamic conquests. Abu Jafar Taberi wrote during this period. Special history books are books that deal with the life of a dynasty or ruler.
These are banks. They provide information about the social and daily life and private lives of those in power. In the history of Islam, Turks began to take place in the geography of the Near East from the 8th century, and this increased in the 9th century. The Turks were used for gulam. Children were bought from the markets as semi-slaves, they were raised and became gulam soldiers. They began to take place in the history of Islam as a state during the Karakhanids period.
In the 12th century, a clear Islamic state tradition emerged. Because the Turks had a strong state, Islam did not disappear in the Near East. Seljuk State Tradition has formed a synthesis with ancient traditions, traditions based on Islamic beliefs, Byzantine, Sassanid, Abbasid and Armenian traditions.
Turkish – Islamic state tradition
In the Turkish-Islamic states, an adaptation has been made to Byzantine institutions and Sassanid institutions. Stands; The council consists of a limited staff like the vizier. There are mutual duties between the ruler and state officials and the people. Bureaucratic tasks were often handed down from father to son. He has a conservative character. Laws are permanent. There is decentralization in the administrative and financial areas.
City dwellers, on the other hand, have a medieval structure. It has an ethnically complex structure. In general, Iranians were engaged in trade, craft and bureaucracy. Villagers are generally engaged in Iranian agriculture. The nomads were mainly Turks and Arabs. Dynasties and changes in dominance did not matter. Institutions would be radically immutable.
The sovereign and the sovereign family
Although the Seljuk state was founded in Islamic geography, it also continued Central Asian traditions. They also brought the concept of Kut. The state is not the property of the monarch, he alone has the right to rule the state.
How did the organization of the Seljuk state come about?
The organization of the Seljuk state was formed by the Turkmen Oghuzs. Turkmen Oghuzs migrated from Central Asia and settled in Anatolia. At the establishment of the Seljuk state, the Turkmen Oghuzs formed the basis of the Seljuk army. The organization of the Seljuk state was combined with Islamic and Turkmen traditions.
How did the bureaucratic organization of the Seljuk state work?
The bureaucratic organization of the Seljuk state consisted of emirs, beys and governors. Emirs were the general commanders of the army and those who prepared the war plans. The gentlemen worked on commission and were in charge of administrative affairs in the provinces. The governors, on the other hand, worked under the lords and were responsible for the day-to-day affairs of the states.
What are the resources of the Seljuk state?
Among the resources of the Seljuk state are historical chronicles, travel books, documents, poems and architectural works. Historical chronicles are important sources that tell the history and events of the state. Travel books are resources that provide information about different parts of the state. Documents are official government correspondence and provide information on administrative matters. The poems provide information about the culture and art of the Seljuk state. Architectural works show the achievements of the Seljuk state in art and architecture.
What was the structure of the army of the Seljuk state?
The Seljuk army was formed by the convergence of many tribes consisting of the Turkmen Oghuz. The army consisted of units of mounted cavalry. The leadership of the army was made by emirs and lords. The Seljuk army achieved many victories fighting against the Byzantine Empire, the Crusaders and other states in the Middle East.