The collapse of the Soviet Union is considered a major turning point in history. This event occupies an important place in world political history and led to the independence of many countries. The collapse of the Soviet Union also paved the way for the creation of the Russian Federation and led to profound changes in Russia’s political, economic and cultural structure.
Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union
The collapse of the Soviet Union went down in history as one of the most important events of the 20th century. This event had a major impact on world political history and was a major turning point in international relations. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the dissolution of one of the largest states in world history and the independence of many countries.
There were many reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union. These include economic crises, political pressures, national differences and external pressures. Towards the end of the 1980s, the economy of the Soviet Union began to weaken and people’s living conditions deteriorated. In addition, the increasing political pressure, the violation of human rights and the punishment of political opponents led to public reactions.
National differences also played a major role in the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Various ethnic groups within the Union took action to preserve their culture and identity and played an important role in the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Boris Yeltsin era
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin, the first president of the Russian Federation, took important steps towards democratization of the country and economic reforms. This period is considered one of the most active and important periods in the history of the Russian Federation.
Yeltsin was elected the first president of the Russian Federation after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Yeltsin worked for the country’s rapid democratization and transition to a free market economy. In addition, he made efforts to prepare and bring into force a new Constitution of the Russian Federation.
The Yeltsin era was a time of great changes in the Russian Federation. The country was going through a rough patch economically as it struggled with debts left by the former Soviet Union. Yeltsin decided to implement market reforms to solve the country’s economic problems and took steps such as privatization, price liberalization and currency reform.
However, the Yeltsin period was also a period of political turmoil in the country. In 1993, a group of deputies and soldiers opposed to Yeltsin’s decisions occupied the Duma building. Yeltsin responded to this event with military intervention and hundreds of people died as a result of the events.
Yeltsin also significantly improved the Russian Federation’s relations with the West during the 1990s. The Partnership Agreement with NATO in 1997 marked a turning point for the Russian Federation to cooperate with the West. In addition, Yeltsin’s good relations with the United States of America and the European Union also strengthened the position of the Russian Federation in the international arena.
Vladimir Putin era
While Vladimir Putin was prime minister of the Russian Federation in 1999, he was named president after the unexpected resignation of President Boris Yeltsin. Putin was the second president of the Russian Federation in the period after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Putin’s presidency was one of the longest in the history of the Russian Federation.
Putin wanted to implement economic reforms to overcome the difficult economic conditions in the country. It supported the economic growth of the Russian Federation by investing in sectors such as energy, mining and industry. Putin also tried to ensure economic stability by reforming the tax system.
During the Putin period, the defense industry and military power of the Russian Federation were also significantly improved. The Russian Federation, especially after the annexation of Crimea in 2014, gained more influence in the international arena by deploying its military power during the conflicts with Ukraine.
Putin has also contributed to the democratization of the country in many ways. He introduced constitutional reforms to strengthen the federal structure of the Russian Federation. It has also taken steps to increase media freedom and the influence of civil society. However, under Putin, human rights violations and repression of political opponents have also increased.
Putin also strengthened the position of the Russian Federation in the international arena. The Russian Federation experienced significant difficulties in its relations with the West after the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, Putin has been working to increase his country’s role in the international arena. Particularly due to the increase in demand for energy resources of the Russian Federation, it has adopted energy export policies, which allow the country to become a more effective player in the international arena.
The collapse of the economic transformation of the Soviet Union in Russia
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economy of the Russian Federation entered a period of great transformation. The Soviet economy was governed by a system of planned economy, which, instead of encouraging production efficiency and innovation, created excessive bureaucracy and inefficiency. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation attempted to transform its economy into a system based on a market economy.
The economic transformation process was a very difficult one for the Russian Federation. The country’s economy was based on a system that operated for many years under state rule, and therefore lacked the infrastructure, legal regulations, and cultural structures necessary for private sector development.
In the 1990s, the Russian Federation began pursuing a policy of economic liberalization. The market economy was fostered by policies such as privatization, deregulation, low taxes and trade liberalization. However, the implementation of this policy encountered several problems, mainly due to problems such as corruption, tax evasion and unfair distribution.
In the 2000s, the Russian Federation began to implement new economic policies in line with the goals of increasing economic growth, increasing production efficiency and diversifying economic structures. This policy was specifically aimed at transcending an economic model based on the export of natural resources and developing innovative industrial areas.
The Collapse of the Soviet Union Cultural Change in Russia
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the culture of the Russian Federation also entered a period of great transformation. During the Soviet era, Soviet ideology and values were largely reflected in the country’s culture. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the culture of the Russian Federation began to change under the influence of new and different cultural elements and old values.
Propaganda and censorship
During the period of the Soviet Union, there were cultural activities and art in the Russian Federation that were suppressed, especially through propaganda and censorship. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, artists and writers who had been silenced by this censorship and repression regained their freedom and created new turmoil in the country’s culture.
The culture of the Russian Federation began to interact more with Western culture and popular culture with the collapse of the Soviet Union and its cultural liberation. The Russian Federation has embraced Western music, movies and other cultural elements, and these elements particularly appealed to the younger generation.
Nationalism and traditional values became increasingly important in the culture of the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation rediscovered its national identity and concepts such as nationalism, national pride and historiography gained importance. Traditional Russian culture, history and folkloric elements also became popular.
Why did the Soviet Union fall apart?
The collapse of the Soviet Union depends on many factors. However, economic problems, government corruption, suppression of people’s freedoms, nationalism, military interventions, tensions between different ethnic groups in the Soviet Union and Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform policies can be counted among the major factors.
How did the people living in the Soviet Union feel?
There were different feelings towards the Soviet system and leadership among people living in the Soviet era. While some appreciated the social justice, order and security created by the system, others supported sanctions in various areas, such as curtailment of their freedom and corruption. In general, there was an atmosphere of uneasiness and suspicion among the people.
What were the consequences of the breakup of the Soviet Union?
The collapse of the Soviet Union led to a profound change in world politics. The Cold War is over and the United States remains the only superpower in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union accelerated globalization. In the post-dissolution period, there were conflicts between the republics in the Soviet Union, and the Russian Federation intervened militarily in some disputed areas.