Information Philosophy | Currents and basic concepts

The origins of the Philosophy of Knowledge date back to the ancient Greek philosophers. Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle have made important studies of the philosophy of knowledge. Studies on this subject were also carried out in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Here is more detailed information about the philosophy of knowledge.

What is Information Philosophy?

Philosophy of information is a branch of philosophy that examines the nature, sources, scope, value, and accuracy of knowledge. Also called epistemology, this discipline seeks to explore the limits of the human mind and understand what knowledge is.

Acquiring knowledge, knowing and learning is one of the most fundamental drives that distinguish human beings from other living beings. Since the emergence of man, it can be seen that he has always and everywhere been influenced by these motives. For this reason, the history of acquiring knowledge and knowledge is as old as the history of mankind.

In the early periods of the history of philosophy, the focus was seen not to be on the subject of knowledge, but on its object. Thales said the arc of everything is “water”. Anaximandros said the arc of everything is “aperion”, which is infinite and unlimited, and Anaximenes said “air”. These are the first period philosophers to focus more on objects in the history of philosophy.

The subject of “knowledge” came to the forefront of philosophical thinking in the days of great philosophers such as the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Inquiry into the nature of knowledge, its source and origin, the reality and limits of knowledge claims, the process of knowledge with all its aspects and elements, and the essence of knowledge, in accordance with such topics as the nature of the human mind, its place perceived by the senses, which distinguishes real knowledge from what is thought to be knowledge; discusses the possibility, validity, and accuracy of knowledge, its terms and types, and its relation to concepts such as belief, doubt, and certainty; trying to determine what can be considered an object of knowledge; It is a branch of philosophy that examines the value of knowledge in all its aspects and examines the clarity of the relationship between the knowing subject and the known object.

The origins of information philosophy

Philosophy of information

“What is the source or origin of the information?” In the context of the question, two important basic concepts have been advanced in the history of philosophy depending on the answers given. The first of these is the notion of “experimentalism”, which claims that the only source of human knowledge is experience through the senses. The traces of the empirical approach can be seen to go back to “Stoicism” and “Epicurism” in the history of philosophy. However, this understanding, in its most competent form, was based on “British empiricism” led by Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.

Again, the approach based on the other answer given to the same philosophical question is rationalism. Like empiricism, rationalism has various forms throughout the history of philosophy, but in its most general sense, rationalism holds that the source of knowledge is a rationality field independent of or preceding experience, or a high-level feeling field based on abstract and general concepts.

Among the most important defenders of rationalism are classical philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza.

Information Philosophy Currents

Philosophy of information

Information philosophy is concerned with such things as the nature, source, scope and correctness of knowledge. The history of the philosophy of knowledge goes back to the ancient Greek philosophers and there are still many issues that are still being discussed. Many schools of thought have emerged in the history of information philosophy, and each has offered a different perspective. Here are some of the major schools of thought in the Philosophy of Knowledge:

1. Empiricism

Empiricism is a movement that holds that experience is the source of knowledge. According to this school of thought, the human mind is like a blank slate from birth and information is obtained through the senses of the outside world. Empiricists argue that knowledge can only be obtained through observation and experience.

2. Rationalism

According to this school of thought, there are innate ideas in the human mind and these ideas emerge with the help of the mind. Rationalists argue that knowledge can only be obtained through reason.

3. Pragmatism

Knowledge is a tool that can be used to solve a problem or for a specific purpose. Pragmatists focus on whether information is useful rather than true or false.

4. Constructivism

Humans cannot perceive the outside world directly and knowledge is constructed through our personal experiences. Constructivists argue that knowledge is subjective, not objective.

5. Realism

Realism is a school of thought that states that knowledge is based on the reality that exists in the outside world. According to this trend, since the outside world is a real and objective entity, knowledge can also be real and objective. Realists claim that the correctness of information is based on its correspondence with reality.

Fundamental questions about information philosophy

Philosophy of information

In general, the basic questions that the philosophy of knowledge tries to answer are as follows;

  • What is Information Theory (Epistemology)?
  • Possibility of correct information
  • Source and criteria of information
  • What is Rationalism?
  • Field, scope and limits of knowledge
  • What is Empiricism?
  • What is the subject of the philosophy of knowledge?
  • What is Criticism?
  • What are the fundamental questions of information theory?
  • What is positivism (positivism)?
  • The problem of the possibility of correct knowledge
  • Analytical Philosophy (What is Analytical Philosophy?
  • Impossibility of correct information
  • What is pragmatism (utilitarianism)?
  • What is skepticism (septicism)?
  • What is Phenomenology?

Differences between science and information philosophy

Philosophy of information

Knowledge, common to all sciences and philosophy, is a phenomenon, but there are many problems with this phenomenon. Science does not deal with any of these problems of the phenomenon of knowledge. Every science naively deals with things that fall within its field, things that exist; follows their problems step by step; tries to solve these problems. It develops, deepens and promotes knowledge in its field.

Science is “what is knowledge?” doesn’t ask the question. With the nature of the knowledge (a priori, aposteriori) it acquires, it does not dwell on the thing from which this knowledge is obtained (what consists). Science does research. He sees the progress he has made with these studies as a self-evident, open phenomenon. Science checks the information it obtains at every step of its research (according to the characteristics of its field of existence), but science does not ask what research is, what progress is, why control is being done.

However, all sciences are concerned with knowledge; but with those who acquire this knowledge, they see the source (things that exist) as very obvious things. There is no question for science here. However, no matter what field knowledge is in, it has two inseparable elements: one of them is the knower (man), and the other is the known, knowable, explored thing (existing thing). Any knowledge is based on these two elements, the link established between them.

known (to man), ‘subject’ in the theory of knowledge; The thing that is known and should be known is also called “object”. The object is what exists. This existing thing can be something natural, a historical document, a language, a literary work, a mathematical problem, a psychological, social or economic phenomenon… Science does not focus on the characteristics of the subject and object, but also about the bonds between the subject and the object. not about actions). How these bands are formed is not studied. The philosophy of knowledge deals with all these problems.

Basic concepts of information philosophy

Philosophy of information

The basic concepts of epistemology are truth, reality, and grounding. While truth, that is, truth, is explained as the agreement of thought with its object, reality is evaluated as everything that exists in time and space. Grounding is defined as finding a justification for the thought or statement made. The basic questions of the philosophy of knowledge;

  • Is accurate information possible?
  • Can one know the truth fully and accurately?
  • What is the source of the information?

“Is accurate information possible?” The answers to the question can be grouped into two main groups in the history of philosophy. In the first of these, there are those who claim that real knowledge is impossible (sophists, skeptics and skeptics). The second group includes those who claim that true knowledge is possible (rationalism, empiricism, criticalism, intuitionism, positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, and pragmatism).

What is the purpose of information philosophy?

The purpose of the Information Philosophy is to understand people’s processes of knowledge acquisition and to explore the best ways to reach the right information. Information philosophy also aims to develop a philosophical understanding of the nature and limits of knowledge.

What is the history of information philosophy?

The history of the Philosophy of Knowledge goes back to the ancient Greek philosophers. Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle have made great contributions to the philosophy of knowledge. Studies on the philosophy of knowledge were also conducted in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

What is the importance of information philosophy?

Philosophy of Information helps people develop their thinking, questioning and logical analysis skills. In addition, it is important to determine the best methods in the process to arrive at the right information. Philosophy of information also helps develop a philosophical understanding of the nature and limits of knowledge.

What is the difference between Philosophy of Information and other philosophical branches?

While Philosophy of Knowledge focuses on issues such as the nature, source, scope and accuracy of knowledge, other branches of philosophy seek answers to questions about the world and the existence of human beings. For example, ontology studies existence, while ethics studies the right and wrong of human behavior.

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