The medical name for the nasal wall is nasal septum. The area we call the septum in the nose is a structure made up of cartilage and bone in the center of the nostrils that separates the nose into two airways and extends to the nasal cavity. In the nose with deviation, this structure is not where it should be. The midline may be tilted more or less to the side. It is considered healthy if the inner width, length and volume of each tunnel are close together. In an ideal and healthy nasal structure, there are two separate air passages in a structure that expands posteriorly. This expanding section ensures that the incoming air is heated, humidified and sent to the olfactory area.
In addition, airborne particles larger than 5 microns are retained and filtered by mucus secretions in the nasal mucosa. The air that is transported to the lungs is therefore of a certain quality and clean. The health of our airways and lungs is related to the quality of the air we ingest. The curvature of the nose, which causes difficulty in breathing and exhaling, actually prevents airflow.
What Are the Causes of Septal Deviation?
Abnormalities may appear in the later stages of life due to external nose bumps, usually in childhood or adolescence. Nasal development is a well-known process that continues until the age of 18. Nose blows during childhood can cause millimeter shifts. If these shifts are not accounted for, the shifts will continue to grow as the nasal structure develops.
In 80% of people, the septum is off-center. The fact that the septum is much farther from the middle part causes several health problems. The disease is defined as a partial or complete curvature of the septum, which shifts from the midline and affects breathing. On the curved side, the air passage is usually reduced. The curvature is sometimes S or C shaped and can block either side of the nose. As the deviation increases, the nasal congestion also increases. When one side is occluded, patients usually feel no discomfort in this way, as they can breathe on the other side.
What problems cause deviation?
Because deviation affects vital situations such as breathing, it can cause many problems. We can list the problems caused by the curvature of the nasal cartilage as follows:
– With nasal congestion, the person breathes through the mouth. Therefore, the air is not heated and humidified as it is in the nose, and the quality of the air going to the lungs decreases. This causes problems in the lungs and airways.
– Organs such as throat, larynx and lungs try to improve air quality due to low air quality. This can cause reactions.
– A snoring problem occurs.
– As breathing quality decreases, sleep quality decreases and regularity is disrupted.
– Many situations such as headache, feeling weak can occur during the day.
– Excessive weight gain can occur.
– Diabetes can occur.
– Heart problems may occur.
What Are the Symptoms of Septal Deviation?
Deviation is a problem that shows on the outside of the nose. This is how the curvature of the nasal bone manifests itself. However, in some cases, some symptoms also occur in the nose. We can list these symptoms as follows;
• Bilateral or unilateral nasal congestion.
• Mouth breathing.
• Sleeping with your mouth open.
• Sleep apnea and snoring.
• Persistent recurrence of sinusitis.
• Pain in the nose and in the center of the face.
The operations performed to correct the curvature of the septum, which separates the two nasal passages and is made up of cartilage at the front and bone at the back, is called “septoplasty.” Since septal deviation is a common problem in society, “deviation surgeries” are among the most commonly performed surgeries to correct this problem.
The most common complaints in people with a curvature of the nasal cartilage are snoring and turbinate.
Septoplasty in the treatment of snoring
Septal deviation is the formation of curves in the nose and septoplasty is the surgery applied to the operations performed to remove these curves. Septoplasty surgery performed under general anesthesia allows you to correct the curvature and get rid of symptoms such as snoring, frequent sinus infections, constant post nasal drip, and chronic headaches.
Septoplasty in the treatment of sleep apnea
Sleep apnea is when you suddenly experience respiratory failure for 10 seconds during sleep. During these 10 seconds, the airflow decreases by 50 percent and the oxygen level in the blood drops (desaturation) or awakening occurs. Sleep apnea, which reduces the quality of life at a high level, is seen between 5 and 10 percent in our country. With septoplasty, the treatment of septal deviation, which is one of the causes of sleep apnea, you can say goodbye to your sleep apnea problems and increase your quality of life.
Septoplasty in the treatment of sinusitis
There are cavities called sinuses around the nose. Sinusitis is the filling of these spaces with inflammation. Sinusitis causes headaches, shortness of breath, nasal congestion and many other problems. If an abnormality is detected in the patient’s nose with sinusitis, sinusitis can be treated with septoplasty. If curvature is detected in the nasal structure, sinusitis causes a much greater breathing problem.
There is no tube-like cavity in the nose and there are three pieces of flesh called concha on each side. The task of these 3 turbinates, the lower, middle and upper turbinates, is to warm, humidify and filter the inhaled air. With the curvature of the septum, enlargement and swelling occur in the turbinates. Nasal congestion becomes more pronounced with hypertrophy. Hypertrophy refers to the overdevelopment of a tissue or organ. Concha hypertrophy is treated with medications or surgery. In some cases, a septoplasty may be performed along with an aesthetic nose surgery called a “nose job.” Allergy etc. Concha hypertrophy, in which intranasal soft tissues swell due to reasons, can also be treated by intervening in the same surgery.
How Is Septal Deviation Surgery (Septoplasty) Determined?
The nose, a structure made up of bone, cartilage and tissues, is a whole that should not be separated as internal and external. For an abnormality operation, the nose should be examined internally and externally and problems identified. It must be determined whether there is an abnormality sign outside the nose. If there is such a problem in the nose, the process should go together.
The curvature of the nasal bone is a problem that is usually visible on the outside of the nose. Performing only intranasal deviation surgery causes the patient’s nasal cartilage to be destroyed, and then the additional nasal deviation surgery becomes very difficult.
The patient should be consulted about this. If the patient needs external surgery for the curvature of the nasal bone, the surgery should be performed both inside and outside the nose.