Invasion of Novgorod
3. When Ivan became the Grand Prince of Moscow in 1462, he showed that he was prudent and very careful. Although he could have linked Ryazan Knezi and Tver directly to himself, he did not. However, he still dominated them. In this way, Ivan showed that he had no interest in the principalities bordering Moscow.
In the early years of Ivan’s reign, Moscow was attacked by the Golden Horde. However, with the attack of the Crimean Khan on the Golden Horde, a great danger was avoided by chance. It is understood that there will be no more danger from the Golden Horde. For this reason, Ivan turned to his main target, Novgorod.
Moscow threatened Novgorod’s independence by seizing some places that belonged to Novgorod. Meanwhile, when Bayars, merchants and clerics entered the protectorate of Lithuania on the condition that they keep their freedom, Moscow was enraged. The entry of an Orthodox city under the rule of a Catholic king was characterized as a great betrayal of Orthodoxy and Russia.
3. Ivan then entered Novgorod with a large army, destroyed and plundered. Villages and towns were burned down and their people were slaughtered, whether women or children. Although the Novgorod people gathered strength with the enthusiastic encouragement of the Morfa wife of the Boretsky family, they were unsuccessful both times.
Thereupon they sent envoys to Ivan and asked for mercy. Ivan agreed to negotiate with them. According to the agreement, the Novgorodians would pay a war indemnity of 15 thousand rubles and break their agreement with Lithuania. With this treaty, Ivan withdrew his troops.
The distance between Novgorod and Moscow reopened after a while. Ivan sent them an ultimatum; He declared that he wanted to dominate in Novgorod and demanded the abolition of veçe (public meeting of the people of the city) and posodnik (general governor). After discussing the matter, the Novgorodians forcibly accepted the offer.
Novgorod was occupied by the Principality of Moscow in 1478. The veil bell, the embodiment of the liberation of Novgorod, was sent to Moscow. Bayars, great merchants and clerics were brought to Moscow, especially the Morfa woman from the Boretski family. Thus, Novgorod’s independence came to an end. This became a normal province in Moscow.
When the Novgorodians revolted against the new regime in 1479, Ivan IV ordered the extermination of the supporters of independence. The archpriest of Novgorod (Vladika) was exiled to Moscow. He was replaced by a trusted person from Moscow.
Bayars or prominent figures were executed or exiled to Moscow’s hometowns. Their estates were divided among Ivan’s servants. The wealthy in Novgorod were replaced by those sent from Moscow.
The lower strata of the Novgorod population seemed to benefit from the new situation. German merchants in Novgorod were expelled. Trade with the Hanseatic cities stopped. Those exiled to Moscow were always branded traitors.
After the occupation, Novgorod was ruled by a prince sent from Moscow. For this reason, Novgorod could not establish free relations with foreign powers. After the occupation, Novgorod was too weak to provide for its own food needs. Grain and wheat needs were met from Moscow.
With the city of Novgorod coming under Moscow’s rule, Moscow this time became larger than the Russian principalities in terms of area, population and wealth. There is not a single Russian principality left to rival Moscow.
Historical information about the city of Novgorod
Although the principality of Novgorod in the north is not suitable for agriculture and livestock, it is a great power because it is the center of money and trade. It was at its best in the 14th century.
Novgorod was ruled by a committee. This commission included the archbishop, the mayor and the city militia. Since Novgorod seemed invincible from the outside, other states kept their distance from it.
Novgorod, which was dependent on the Rurik dynasty on paper, could not control Moscow because of its coldness towards the Moscow principality.
In Novgorod, as in other city-states, there is a huge gulf between the nobility and the common people. He was a member of the Novgorod Hanseatic League, and thanks to this union he had large market areas and the squirrel fur trade was developed.
Novgorod is more populous and richer than Moscow. Novgorod was based on a pre-Kiev legacy. In other words, it had a rich historical heritage. He was extremely tolerant of punishment.
Punishments were not lethal. It was governed by laws, protected the citizen and followed a government based on the trust and loyalty of the citizens. Compared to other principalities, its relationship with the world was greater due to its trade.
When did the occupation of Novgorod by Moscow take place?
The occupation of Novgorod by Moscow took place in 1478.
What prompted Moscow’s invasion of Novgorod?
The occupation of Novgorod by Moscow took place as a result of the fortification of Novgorod and Moscow’s increasing powerlessness.
What happened after the invasion of Novgorod?
After the occupation of Novgorod, Moscow went through many cultural, historical and political changes, making Novgorod part of the Russian Empire.
How is the occupation of Novgorod today?
The invasion of Novgorod is today recognized as an important event in Russian history and continues to explain the evolution and change of relations between Novgorod and Moscow.