Gynecology and obstetrics specialist Dr. Cihan Deniz Keleş said that dysmenorrhea, which means menstrual pain, is one of the most common gynecological complaints that can be seen in at least one menstrual period in 90 percent of women.
Dr. Dr. Keleş said: “There may be symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness and headache associated with dysmenorrhea. The pain experienced in the case of dysmenorrhea is intermittent and manifests itself in the form of cramps. In addition, this pain is more intense in the suprapubic region. This intense pain can last up to 48-72 hours. It is normal to feel pain due to uterine contractions during menstruation. However, in some cases, the severity of this pain can increase significantly. He added that dysmenorrhea is more common in women who start menstruating at age 11 or earlier, menorrhagia with heavy menstrual bleeding, genetic predisposition, smokers, frequent genital cleansing and vaginal douching, and menstrual irregularities.
“There are two kinds, primary and secondary”
Noting that dysmenorrhea is divided into primary and secondary, Dr. Keleş said: “In the primary condition, the pain starts soon after the first menstruation, within 2 years, and there is no underlying pathology. Pain usually begins with menstrual bleeding, ends within 48-72 hours, and is experienced in the lower part of the abdomen in the form of cramps or spasms. It’s a condition that usually relapses after birth,” he said.
Dr. Dr. Keleş said: “If it is secondary, it is seen later in life and the pains last longer than normal cramps. Pain may begin before menstruation begins and last longer, may become more severe during menstruation and persist after it is over.
Dr. Keleş explains the problems that cause secondary dysmenorrhea as “endometriosis, myoma uteri, endometrial polyp, previous pelvic infections, intrauterine device use (IUD), venous congestion in the internal genital organs, deviations in the position of the uterus, cervical stenosis, right ovarian venous syndrome, intra-abdominal operations, adhesions and congenital uterine anomalies”.
Dr. Keleş stated that although the most prominent symptom of dysmenorrhea is severe pain in the groin, complaints such as fatigue, disorientation, emotional instability, nausea, dizziness, digestive system problems such as diarrhoea, constipation and vomiting, fainting, loss of appetite, headache can also occur. perceived. .
“The gold standard in treatment is the diagnosis of a specialist doctor”
Noting that treatment varies depending on the diagnosis, Dr. Keleş said: “Since there is no underlying cause in primary dysmenorrhea, treatment tends to focus on symptoms, while in secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment is given for the pathology causing the diagnosis. Diagnosis by a specialist doctor is therefore the gold standard for the treatment of women with dysmenorrhea.
Emphasizing that several treatment options are possible, Dr. Keleş noted that analgesics, contraceptive pills, anticholinergics, smooth muscle relaxants, interventional treatments with local anesthesia, vitamins and minerals (B1 and magnesium) are used in drug treatment. Apart from that, the doctor talked about surgical intervention, psychotherapy, massage and acupuncture if necessary. Noting that there are measures that can be taken to relieve pain, Dr. Keleş said: “Exercises such as aerobics, cycling and walking trigger the production of natural chemicals that relieve pain. Hot water bags applied to the abdomen with a warm bath can also reduce pain. In addition, these patients must ensure that they sleep before and during their menstrual cycle.