What are the signs of sovereignty in Turkish states?

Sovereignty signs are symbolic signs used throughout history to determine the legitimacy and authority of state leaders. Collected in two main categories as spiritual and material, these signs announce the status and sovereignty of the ruler. In this content, we will examine in detail the signs of the reign and discover the symbols of greatness in the traces of history. If you’re ready, let’s get started…

Signs of spiritual sovereignty

1. Sermon

The khutbah, one of the most important signs of rule, is the religious advice read on behalf of the ruler during Friday and Eid prayers. In the sermons it is an important tradition to mention the name and epithet of the ruler to whom he is subject, the ruler’s name and epithet being paramount. This practice shows the loyalty and obedience of the subordinate ruler.

2. Title / Nickname / Imprint

The titles, nicknames and tags worn by the rulers are important symbols that reflect their status and power. The titles and nicknames given to the sultans differ from those given to other military and civilian officials. These titles are usually given by the caliph and emphasize the monarch’s authority. In addition, the tags bear the names of the rulers’ fathers, showing their lineage and affiliation.

Signs of material sovereignty

Signs of sovereignty in Turkish states

1. Coin

One of the symbols rulers use to declare their sovereignty is known as currency. The rulers who ascend the throne have coins with their names, titles and nicknames on them. Subdued rulers and kings also minted coins by first writing the caliph’s name and nickname, followed by the ruler to whom they were subject. This practice represents the dominance of the ruler and the proclamation of rulership. In the Seljuk period, the bow and arrow motifs, which were the symbols of Oghuz rule, were usually engraved on the coins.

2. Detention

Detention is a symbol used in place of a seal in official correspondence. The Seljuk rulers, according to Islamic tradition, formed their prayers from prayer phrases. The charges were in the form of the ruler’s name, nickname and prayer phrase. This symbol reflected the authority and authority of the monarch.

3. Access

The tugra, used from the Oghuz Khans to the Seljuk sultans and thence to the Ottoman sultans, is a sign and a written sign. Tugra is an inscription with the name of the ruler, titles and a prayer phrase. Tugras, used since Tuğrul Bey, represent the sovereignty of the ruler and chain of government. For example, the tughra of the Seljuk sultan Sultan Sencer is written with the bow and arrow symbol at the bottom and the prayer phrase “Bismillah Tvekkeltu Allah” at the top.

4. slash

Tiraz is a symbol that passed from the Seljuks to the Abbasids. It is known as a garment made of precious fabrics on which the sultan’s name, title and nicknames are embroidered. The rods are mainly given by monarchs to their subordinates and are an important government gift.

5. Hilat

Hilat is the ruler’s dress on which the ruler’s names and titles are written. These dresses are called “hilat” when donated by the rulers to the rulers subject to them. Accessories that complete the creeds are also given as gifts, and these accessories can be symbols such as swords, belts, arrows, and rings.

Signs of sovereignty in Turkish states


Çetr is a sultan’s umbrella that opens in the form of a small dome on a spear. Çetr may be made of precious fabrics and embroidered with thread or gold. The title and sign of the ruler were on the Çetr. Çetr was used as a symbol of the sultan’s position and status. It was carried by the chetirci, who sat a little behind the ruler’s horse. Çetr’s presence expressed the sultan’s position and authority during the war. When the soldiers could see Çetr out of place, they thought he was defeated.

7. Gasiya

Gashiya means the ruler’s veil. Gashiye, made of precious fabrics, is a cover embroidered with the name and nickname of the ruler. In ceremonies, the gaşiye was worn on foot in front of the sultan’s horse. This gesture was used as a sign of contempt for subordinate rulers who might not show respect.

8. Nabet

Nevbet refers to a marching band. Navbet was played five times a day at the sultan’s doorstep. The kings sent to the provinces, and the rulers who were subjugated played nevbet three times a day. If nevbet was played five times a day, it meant rebellion. The Nevbet team had instruments such as drums, trumpets and neys.

9. Otağ (Tent of the Sultanate)

Known as the tent where the ruler resides, Otağ is as important a symbol as the palace. The tent is the symbol of the ruler’s sovereignty. Putting up the tent meant going on an expedition and the army would gather around this tent. At the same time, the place where the tent stood indicated the direction of the expedition.

Signs of naturalness

Signs of sovereignty in Turkish states

  • To mention in the sermons the name of the ruler to whom he is subject.
  • To ring nevbet at the door 3 times (if it rings 5 ​​times, this action is considered a rebellion.)
  • To indicate the name of the ruler to whom he is subject on coins.
  • To pay taxes to the ruler to whom he is subject.
  • Provide military assistance to the State to which it is subject when necessary.

What are the signs of sovereignty?

Signs of sovereignty are symbolic signs that rulers throughout history used to show their legitimacy and authority.

Why is the coin important among the royal signs?

The coin symbolizes the monarch’s proclamation. These are the coins on which the name, title and nickname of the ruler are written.

What is the difference between taraz and hilat?

While the tiraz is a piece of clothing on which the name and title of the ruler is written, the hilat is the special tiara given by the rulers as a gift to the rulers to whom they are subject.

What is Otağ and why is it important?

Otagh means the tent in which the ruler resides. It is the symbol of the ruler’s sovereignty and setting up the tent means going on an expedition. At the same time, the army gathered around the tent and gathered under the leadership of the ruler.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *