The First World War at the beginning of the 20th century was one of the most devastating and bloody conflicts in world history. With the end of the war, the winners of the war, the Allied Powers, presented a set of principles to ensure international peace and justice. These principles were called the “Wilson Principles” because they were put forth by the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson. In this article we will discuss what the Wilson Principles are, what they contain and why they are important.
What are the Wilson Principles?
The Wilson Principles are a set of principles proclaimed by US President Woodrow Wilson at the end of World War I aimed at maintaining international peace and stability. These principles were intended to lay the foundations for a new world order with the end of the war that affected the entire world. Wilson adopted the principle of openness, equality and peaceful cooperation in international relations.
Clauses of the Wilson Principles
The Wilson Principles have a total of 14 items. These articles specify how to conduct international relations and how to achieve world peace. Here are the clauses of the Wilson Principles:
- Open peace treaties and open diplomacy in the future.
- Absolute liberty of the seas beyond the territorial sea, in war and peace.
- Removing all economic barriers as much as possible.
- Necessary and sufficient guarantees for the reduction of national armaments.
- Resolving colonial aspirations through absolute impartiality, taking into account the interests of the peoples involved and the wishes of the colonial state, whose powers will be determined later.
- All Russian lands will be evacuated, and with the help of the states, Russia will have every opportunity to ensure its own development.
- Restoration of full and independent sovereignty for Belgium.
- The evacuation of the occupied French lands and the securing of peace by righting Prussia’s mistake in the Alsace-Lorraine question in 1871.
- Correction of Italian borders according to the principles of nationality.
- Giving the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian Empire opportunities for autonomous development.
- The countries of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro are evacuated and Serbia is given a sea route. The relations of the Balkan States will be governed by the nationality principle.
- The sovereignty of the Turkish parts of the Ottoman Empire is guaranteed, but the non-Turkish nationalities are given autonomous development opportunities. The Strait of the Dardanelles will be permanently open to ships of all nations and this will be guaranteed internationally.
- There will be an independent Poland.
- Establish an organization of nations to enable all states, large and small, to mutually secure their political independence and territorial integrity.
Purpose of the Wilson Principles
The primary purpose of the Wilson Principles was to establish a just and peaceful post-war world order. The Principles aimed to promote the principles of openness, transparency and cooperation in international relations. Wilson believed that there should be an end to the conspiracy and a move towards open diplomacy. In this way, trust between countries would increase and contribute to easing tensions.
The Importance of the Wilson Principles
The Wilson Principles are very important. The principles played an important role in establishing the post-war world order. It has been a beacon of hope, especially for war-torn countries, and has formed a basis for the recovery of the occupied territories. By emphasizing the need for a just peace treaty, the Principles helped ensure justice in the reconstruction of the post-war world.
Implications of the Wilson Principles
The results of the Wilson Principles are not as expected. The Allied Powers interpreted and applied these principles in accordance with their own interests. This situation meant that the requirements of some countries were not fully met and new problems arose. Particularly due to the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and the granting of independence to minorities, the balance in the region deteriorated.
How many articles does the Wilson Principles consist of?
The Wilson Principles have 14 articles.
When were the Wilson Principles announced?
The Wilson Principles were announced in 1918, towards the end of the First World War.
Which country announced the Wilson Principles?
The Wilson Principles were announced by the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson.
Why were the Wilson Principles not adopted?
The Wilson Principles were not accepted by most belligerent countries because they conflicted with the interests of some countries.