What is Alienation? Causes and cultural impact

While the concept of alienation was one that was discussed at certain times, it has become one that is gaining importance today. The concept of alienation, which Karl Marx explained many years ago, is now set in stone one by one.

What is the concept of alienation?

Alienation is a state of emotion that makes it difficult for a person to understand themselves, others, or society’s values, norms, and expectations. This situation usually manifests with symptoms such as feeling lonely, feeling incompatible with the environment, feeling alienated.

Alienation can occur on an individual and societal level. Individual alienation can occur as a result of a sense of inadequacy or inadequacy that a person feels about themselves. For example, not being successful enough in social life, not being accepted in society or a feeling of loneliness can be counted among the causes of individual alienation.

Self-estrangement is actually perceived as a psychological state. Social disintegration occurs with the deterioration of the person’s mood. With the deterioration of the social structure, there will be distortions in the economic situation. In other words, alienation is intertwined with fields such as social studies, philosophy and economics. In fact, let’s think this way, if alienation concerns people, it intertwines with all areas dealing with people.

Alienation is when a person begins to isolate himself from his environment along with his alienation from himself. The person who has been removed from the essence of his self now cuts all connections with life. We have tried to define the concept of alienation, but what are the factors that cause the concept of alienation? Here Karl Marx gave a good explanation as he explained the concept of alienation.

Causes of Alienation


The causes of alienation can be caused by various factors such as individual, social, cultural, psychological and economic factors.


Individual reasons include not valuing oneself enough, lacking self-confidence, not being successful enough in social life, or having difficulty with social relationships. Such factors can lead a person to feel inadequate and lonely and therefore experience a sense of alienation.


Social causes include difficulties in adapting to the values, norms and expectations of the society in which one lives. Conflicts and divisions, especially between different cultures, can increase the feeling of alienation.


Cultural reasons include cultural differences and differences. For example, differences between the culture in which someone was born and raised and another culture can cause a sense of alienation.


Among psychological causes, factors such as depression, anxiety, traumatic experiences and personality disorders can also increase the feeling of alienation. In such cases, the person may isolate himself from his environment and feel alone.


Economic reasons can also be counted among the causes of alienation. Unemployment, poverty and economic insecurity can make a person feel isolated from society.

Cultural dimension of alienation


Alienation can be viewed not only as an individual experience, but also as a cultural phenomenon. Culture consists of a set of values, norms, beliefs, languages ​​and traditions that people create as individuals living and interacting in a particular society. Alienation can thus mean that the individual leaves his or her own culture and society, feels alienated and has difficulty adapting to another culture.

Cultural alienation can occur as a result of an individual’s alienation from his or her own culture and values. The person may have lost or changed the values ​​and beliefs of their own culture. This can mean alienation from one’s own identity and difficulty adapting to another culture.

At the same time, individuals living in a different culture may experience cultural alienation. This may mean that the person has difficulty understanding the values ​​and norms in a culture other than their own and finds it difficult to find a place in this culture. In particular, factors such as the language barrier, social norms and expectations can increase the feeling of cultural alienation.

The consequences of cultural alienation can include loss of self-confidence, low self-esteem, problems with social cohesion, social isolation, and even negative behaviors such as racism.

Karl Marx’s concept of alienation


Hegel was the first to use the term alienation. According to Hegel, he tried to explain the alienated person as if he wanted to get away with his history, assuming that the alienation of people depends on their essence, that is, their reality, on people. The concept of alienation began to be recognized with Marx. Karl Marx has a two-dimensional concept of alienation.

The first concept of alienation is one’s alienation from nature. The second concept of alienation is the concept of alienation that has emerged under the influence of capitalism. Let us now try to clarify Marx’s concepts of alienation. What did Marx mean by the concept of alienation?

Alienation of man from nature; In primitive times, people were intertwined with nature. In fact, man was an inseparable part of nature, and nature and man were almost a whole. However, at present, with the emergence of shelters and various business areas, people are alienated from nature, that is, from nature, where they are intertwined, and alienated from nature. Now he is afraid of nature and cannot take advantage of the natural things in nature.

Alienation in capitalism


With capitalism, that is, with the transition to consumer society, the concept of alienation will become more and more terrible. Marx’s reference to the current consumer frenzy years ago shows that this idea of ​​alienation is still valid today. Marx analyzed alienation on an economic basis. According to Marx, the economy is the basis of society and for that he stated that everything has to do with the economy.

Alienation says that the product produced by the individual through labor is the property of capitalism and the worker never benefits from the products he produces. The fact that people cannot have the product they produce causes people to become alienated from the product. For example, you make travel news about England, you collect the information you collected there and here and make it. You won’t be happy if you write down the places you haven’t been, the places you don’t know. Thanks to the news you have made, you may not be able to continue writing because you do not have the opportunity to go wandering, or you work in a chocolate factory, making chocolates, but if you do not like the taste, you become alienated from the product you have made. The estranged person becomes unhappy, constantly wants to be cleansed of himself, flees from society.

What are the causes of alienation?

The reasons for alienation are very diverse. Individual causes can include loneliness, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and social isolation. Social reasons include cultural differences, social exclusion, racial discrimination, economic problems and changes in the social structure.

What are the consequences of alienation?

Alienation is the state of alienation and alienation of the individual from himself, society and other people. In this case, the person may lose self-confidence, experience anxiety and depression, increase the feeling of loneliness and even become socially isolated. At the same time, alienation can cause problems in social cohesion and even lead to negative behaviors such as racism.

Is it possible to prevent or reduce alienation?

Yes, it is possible to prevent or reduce alienation. For this it is important to ensure more interaction, understanding and respect between people. At the same time, celebrating cultural differences and diversity, reducing feelings of loneliness and strengthening social bonds can also help prevent alienation. Resources such as therapy, counseling, and support groups can also be used to combat alienation.

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