What is protein leakage in urine, why does it occur? What are the disadvantages of protein leakage?
What is protein leakage in urine?
The kidney is a vital organ in the back of the abdomen. Normally, each individual has two. Each kidney consists of 2 parts; one contains glomeruli, cortex and the other tubules and vessels, medulla. The glomeruli play an important role in filtering waste from the body. In total, a kidney consists of about 1 million nephrons (glomerulus + tubule) that are used to filter the blood to remove waste products that are excreted in the urine.
Albumin is a protein produced by the liver. It is then filtered in the kidney and only a small amount (not all scientists agree on the value) then ends up in the urine. In general, the glomerular filtration barrier proteins do not pass. The glomerular filtration barrier (BFG) has two functions. The first is to allow water and low molecular weight molecules to pass through. The second is to prevent the passage of high molecular weight molecules. To do this, it consists of 3 layers with different properties that limit the passage of different molecules: endothelium, basement membrane and podocytes.
What Causes Protein Leakage?
Proteinuria is an abnormal concentration of protein in the urine and can have different causes depending on certain conditions. The kidneys constantly filter the blood to remove waste products in the urine while preserving useful components such as protein. However, a few conditions can interfere with this process and cause more protein than normal to be found in the urine.
In a healthy person, the filtration of protein in the urine begins in the glomerulus. This capillary network allows liquid and small solutes to pass into the kidneys, but closes the channels of large molecules such as proteins. Some lower molecular weight proteins can pass through this wall, but more remains in the bloodstream, including albumin. Most of what enters the kidney is reabsorbed in the proximal tortuous tube and usually only a small concentration of protein is excreted in the urine.
What are the disadvantages of protein leakage?
Some conditions can cause a temporary increase in protein concentration in the urine that is not permanent and is not an indication of damage to kidney function.
- l Extreme temperatures (hot or cold)
- l Emotional stress
- l financial effort
- l Fire
Each of these factors has the potential to temporarily alter how the kidney works and can cause protein in the urine. However, the urine should return to normal once the cause has been removed.
Protein spillage in the urine can occur when there is an increased production of low molecular weight protein that can pass through the glomerulus. This places an increased burden on the proximal coiled tubes to reabsorb the protein and results in an increased concentration of secreted proteins.
What are the symptoms of urinary leakage?
The abdomen can swell due to accumulation of large amounts of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites). Shortness of breath can result from fluid building up in the space around the lungs. Other symptoms may include edema of the genital lips in women and scrotum in men. Often, the fluid that causes tissue edema moves under the influence of gravity. The fluid collects in the upper parts of the body, such as the eyelids, at night.
During the day, when people sit or stand, fluid collects in the lower parts of the body, such as the ankles. Worsening edema can also mask progressive muscle breakdown. Blood pressure in children is usually low and can become even lower when children stand up. Shock can also occur. In adults, blood pressure can be low, normal, or high.
Nutritional deficiencies can be caused by the loss of nutrients in the urine. Children’s development can be affected. Calcium can be lost from bones and people can become deficient in vitamin D, leading to osteoporosis. Nails and hair can become brittle and part of the hair can fall out. For unknown reasons, white horizontal lines may appear on the nails.