What is the Gulam System? History, operating system and benefits
The Gulam system was a common social structure in Central Asia and in pre-Islamic times. Slaves were completely subordinate to their masters and worked in their service. This system has played an important role in the history of Central Asia, although it has drawn criticism on slavery and human rights issues.
What is the Gulam System?
The Gulam system is a social structure used in Central Asia and especially in pre-Islamic times. In this system, a man is sold as a “gulam” (slave) to another man and shows loyalty to his owner in return for his services. The basis of the Gulam system is that one person is completely dependent on the other and serves him for the rest of his life.
It was widely used in nomadic Turkic communities in Central Asia and some other pre-Islamic societies. This system developed strongly, especially during periods of the sale of prisoners of war and the slave trade.
The Gulam system is designed for slaves who are subordinate to their masters to do their jobs and carry out the master’s orders. In this system, slaves worked to help their owners rise to a higher position in society. However, this system has been criticized for not respecting the human rights of slaves.
History of the Gulam System
The Gulam system is a social and military system that originated in Central Asia and Iran. This system was widely used, especially in the Islamic world. It was first used by the state of Samanoğulları at the beginning of the 9th century.
The word Ghulam is an Arabic word meaning “slave”. However, the Gulam system does not only refer to slavery, but is also part of the social class system. The gulam system was commonly used in armed forces and palaces.
It consisted of a group of soldiers, usually prisoners of war or slaves. These soldiers were trained and disciplined and used as warriors in war. Depending on their success in battle, Gulam soldiers were appointed to high posts in the palaces.
It was widely used, especially during the Abbasid Caliphate. The Abbasid caliph, Harun Rashid, encouraged the use of Ghulam soldiers and raised them to high positions in his palace. Most famous among Harun Rashid’s Ghulam soldiers is the Iranian Abu’l-Hasan al-Mawardi, who was his political and military advisor.
Although the gulam system is widely used in the Islamic world, it has been superseded by other systems over time. However, some countries still have structures similar to the Gulam system. For example, the Revolutionary Guards of the Islamic Republic of Iran, established during the revolution, was modeled on the Ghulam system.
How does the Gulam system work?
The Gulam system is a social and military system that originated in Central Asia and Iran. This system consists of a group of soldiers, usually prisoners of war or slaves, and they form a well-trained, disciplined and loyal unit. So how does the Gulam system work? Here are the details:
Gulam soldiers are a group of soldiers made up of prisoners of war or slaves. These soldiers are usually selected at a young age and trained in the palace or in the military units. During their training they develop their military skills and war strategy.
After completing their education, they begin to serve in the palace or in the military units. Depending on their success in battle, they have a chance to rise. By being appointed to high posts, they can serve in leadership positions at the court or in the military units.
Gulam soldiers are a disciplined, loyal and dedicated unit. This devotion is characterized by the devotion and loyalty that soldiers feel for their leader. Therefore, Gulam soldiers obey their leader without question.
Advantages of the Gulam system
The Gulam system is a social and military system that has been used in Central Asia and Iran throughout history. This system consists of a group of soldiers made up of prisoners of war or slaves and forms a well-trained, disciplined and loyal unit. So, what are the benefits of the Gulam system? Here are the details:
- Gulam soldiers are a group of soldiers made up of prisoners of war or slaves.
- Soldiers specialize in combat skills and strategies by training at court or in military units.
- A trained military unit is created and has a higher chance of being more successful in battle.
- Gulam soldiers obey their leaders unquestioningly and have a deep devotion and loyalty to their leader.
- It enables their leaders to carry out their orders quickly and maintains discipline within the unit.
- Since the gulam system consists of a group of soldiers made up of prisoners of war or slaves, military units are less costly to form.
- They feel a deep devotion and loyalty to their leader and are quick to follow their leader’s orders.
- It is possible for leaders to gain control over military units more easily.
- Gulam soldiers can be used for various missions in war and peace.
- In war they can occupy strategic positions, and in peace, at court or to ensure the safety of their leaders.
Methods of inclusion of Gulam soldiers in the system
Gulamhane is mentioned in the Anatolian Seljuks. However, there is not much information about how gulams were grown and used by the Seljuks. They were employed in the palace, central, government, provincial organizations and in the army. Gulams were favored because they were extremely reliable in their devotion to their owners. There has been a parable in this regard. Accordingly, the ruler’s son expected the ruler’s death, while the gulams expected him to live.
What does the Gulam system mean?
The gulam system is a social class system that originated in India. This system is based on a hierarchy that is determined depending on the birth and family of individuals.
Where are the origins of the Gulam system?
The Gulam system has a history dating back to the early 2nd millennium BC in India. This system arose with the migration of Aryans to India.
How many different classes are there in the Gulam system?
The Gulam system consists of four main classes. The highest class is called Brahmins (priests and teachers) while the lowest class is called Dalits (excluded or fragmented).